Fundamental Rights and Duties

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The ‘Constitution of India’ is the supreme law of our country. India has the longest written constitution in the world. Our constitution explains powers and duties of government institutions, and also the fundamental rights and duties of citizens.

The constitution of India came into effect on January 26, 1950. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. Our ‘constitution’ helped in transforming India into an independent republic with a democratic government. 

Every Indian shall abide by the constitution. It lays down the framework of the fundamental political code of our nation.

Fundamental rights of Indian citizens

rights and duties

Right to Equality

Everybody is equal before the law. Every citizen enjoys equal ‘protection of law’ within the Indian territory.

Right to Freedom

All Indians enjoy the following rights

  • Right to freedom of speech and expression

Citizens of India are free to voice their opinions and are ‘entitled’ to express dissent.

  • Right to assemble peaceably (without arms)

Indians are free to gather/protest, without resorting to violence.

  •  Right to form associations or unions or co-operative societies

 Every individual can be part of associations or unions according to his will

  • Right to move freely 

 We can travel across the length and breadth of the country without any restrictions.

  •  Right to reside and settle in any part of the country

Indians have the right to reside/settle in any part of the country according to their choice.

  • Right to practice any profession 

We are free to carry on any occupation, trade or business in our mother country.

Right against Exploitation

The law of our nation strictly prohibits human trafficking and forced labour. Offenders shall be severely punished. 

Right to Freedom of Religion

Every individual in India is free to follow/practice religion of his liking.

They also have the right to acquire movable and immovable properties and establish religious/charitable institutions. 

Right to Life

The right to life guarantees protection with respect to conviction for offenses. In short, ‘right to life’ assures protection of life and personal liberty. According to Article 21, no citizen in our country shall be denied his life and liberty except by process of law. 

The cultural and educational rights

Citizens of our country speak different languages and practice different cultures. All these are protected by law. Minorities are free to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.

Right to Constitutional Remedies

The supreme court is the highest court in the country and is considered as the protector of constitutional rights. They have the right to issue writs such as habeas corpus, mandamus, and certiorari for enforcing fundamental rights.

Right to Privacy

It comes under freedoms assured by part III of the Indian constitution. We all have our ‘privacy’ in our country. Both state and non-state actors are prohibited from interfering in the inner spheres of our lives, helping us make autonomous life choices.

Fundamental duties of Indian citizens

rights and duties
  • People should abide by the constitution. They should respect all its ‘ideals’ and ‘institutions’, including the national flag and the national anthem.
  • We should always cherish and follow the noble ideals which helped us gain independence.
  • People shall strive hard for upholding and protecting the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of our great nation.
  • Should be ever ready to defend the country and provide ‘national service’ whenever called upon to do so.
  • We shall promote harmony and spirit of brotherhood amongst us transcending religious, linguistic, and regional diversities. We shall strongly condemn violence against women and protect their dignity.
  • We should protect our rich culture and heritage.
  • Preserving wildlife and our natural environment including forests, lakes, and rivers are also part of our duties.
  • We shall develop scientific temper and promote ‘humanism’.
  • Citizens shall safeguard public property and condemn violence.
  • Strive for excellence in all spheres helping our nation attain progress.
  • Parents should take care of their children; provide them quality education.

It’s important to be aware of our rights and duties. It helps us in becoming responsible citizens!


Read more:Pollution

Check your knowledge

 Answer)  January 26, 1950.

   Answer) Everybody is equal before the law. Every citizen enjoys equal ‘protection of law’ within the Indian territory.

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