The process of increasing agricultural production by making use of modern machines and techniques is called the ‘Green Revolution’. The technology helped in increasing agricultural production across the globe, especially in the developing world, between 1950 and the late 1960s. HYV (high-yielding varieties) seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation methods helped in increasing production of food grains.
India’s green revolution started in the early 1960s. States like Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh witnessed a rise in food grain production. It brought about revolutionary changes in the farming sector. Use of HYV seeds, fertilizers, irrigation water and pesticides provided a much-needed boost to agricultural production across the country.
Green revolution was initiated in India under the leadership of renowned congress leader Lal Bahadur Shastri. It was also called the ‘Third Agricultural Revolution’. Norman Borlaug is considered as the Father of Green Revolution across the world. He is the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Dr. M.S. Swaminathan is considered as the Father of the Green Revolution in India.
Thanks to the green revolution, India registered record grain output in 1978-79 (131 million tons). India was soon ranked among the world’s biggest agricultural producers. It became a major exporter of food grains.
With rising production, the fields required more water, more pesticides and other chemicals. This proved to be a major boost for the local manufacturing sector. It promoted industrial growth, helped in creating new job opportunities, and contributed to the nation’s GDP. With rise in irrigation, there was a requirement for constructing new dams for harnessing monsoon water. The stored water in the dams was also used for generating electricity. Overall, the green revolution provided a big push to industrial growth, creating job opportunities and improving the quality of life of people in rural India.
‘Green Revolution’ witnessed increased use of water, fertilizers and insecticides. There was a requirement for better transportation facilities and electric supply. All these needs created several job opportunities both in the agrarian and industrial sectors. Thousands of laborers were employed in the new factories and hydro-electric power stations.
‘Green Revolution’ has great significance in India’s political history. It literally helped Mrs. Indira Gandhi and the Indian National Congress party to become a formidable political force in India. From being a starving nation, India transformed itself into an exporter of food!
India was widely appreciated, especially by third world countries.
Every coin has a flip side, the green revolution had its disadvantages as well. It increased disparities in income. While rich landlords benefited, poor farmers struggled with their small bits of land and inadequate water supply. In short, the green revolution was rather designed to suit the interests of large farmers!
‘Inequalities’ grew out of proportion, as rich farmers started reclaiming their lands from tenants, eyeing better profits from the latest technologies.
Because of the increased fertilizer use, soil quality started deteriorating. They started becoming alkaline/acidic, proving unfit for cultivation. The ‘widespread’ exploitation reduced the poor and backward farmers to the ranks of landless laborers.
Despite its drawbacks, the green revolution proved a ‘boon’ for the Indian farming sector. It helped us attain food security.
The green revolution helped people come out of poverty, and contributed significantly in the fight against ‘hunger’.
It has so far saved over a billion people around the world from ‘famine’.
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Answer) Norman Borlaug.
Answer) Dr. M.S. Swaminathan.
Answer) High-yielding varieties