Industrial Revolution

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The industrial revolution was a period of drastic changes. It witnessed the transformation of a largely handicraft and agriculture based economy to machine manufacturing. European and American society relied heavily on agriculture, hand production methods, this led to lower production. But in the second half of the 18th century, mass producing machines were introduced. The introduction of modern methods of production led to mass production, bringing about major changes in the economy.

The industrial revolution triggered several social changes too. It created new job opportunities, lowered prices and offered better quality of life and communication. But, the industrial revolution had its share of disadvantages as well. While it improved the quality of life and created a better economy, it resulted in harsh working conditions as well.



In the pre-industrial era, the economy was totally dependent on agriculture and handmade products. Less number of goods were produced and the cost of production was very high. There was significant change post the introduction of machines and factories in the late 1700s and mid 1800s. The industrial revolution converted the highly rural and agriculture based society into urban, machine-driven factories. It started in Britain and spread to America, Japan and other European countries within no time. 

The industrial revolution initiated economic and social changes across the globe. 

Impact of Industrial Revolution


The industrial revolution brought about several developments. The textile industry witnessed significant changes. Machines were invented for making cleaning, gathering, spinning and weaving processes easier. With the help of modern production methods, a large number of clothes could be produced at once. Invention of steam engines further propelled the production. In the following years, industrialization spread to several sectors including farming, transportation, communication, and banking.


  • Industrialization leads to cheaper and more efficient production. Production was made quicker and easier than ever before. 
  • It brought about innovation and development in several sectors including communication, transportation, and farming. 
  • With the advent of machines and factories, there was a flurry of job opportunities. The quality of life improved as well.
  • The industrial revolution brought about critical changes in the health sector. It led to the discovery of vital medical equipment and treatments. 


  • Several jobs became obsolete with the introduction of machines. This resulted in widespread unemployment and poverty. 
  • With the onset of the industrial revolution, there was an influx of migrants in poorly planned cities across the world. Unsanitary living conditions resulted in the spread of diseases.
  • Workers were terribly underpaid and often forced to work over time. The toxic chemicals expelled from these factories were extremely hazardous. 
  • Industrial revolution caused widespread pollution. This led to global warming and other ecological problems.
  • Unequal distribution of wealth was among the aftereffects of the industrial revolution. Due to the economic gap, the factory owners got richer, and the workers remained poor. 

Like everything else, the industrial revolution has its pros and cons. Together, we can build a better world by focusing on innovation, without compromising on safety and equality!


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Check your knowledge

  Answer) It is a period during which the largely agricultural economy shifted to machine based manufacturing.

 Answer) Mass production, innovation, better job opportunities and improved quality of life.

Answers) Unemployment, depletion of natural resources, pollution, and toxic working environment.

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